42 WiFi Terms You Need To Know If You Have Wireless Internet

Do you understand wifi terms, or does it sound like another language? Our glossary of terms will help you learn essential WiFi terms you need to know, explaining the technical mumbo jumbo, abbreviations, and common acronyms you will run into when discussing wireless internet. 

Below you’ll find the common and not-so-standard WiFi terms, so you’re ready for any conversation. Let’s explore!

WiFi Terms

Access point – Base station device for a wireless network that allows wireless devices to connect to a network. Access points can increase the range of your WiFi. 

Antenna – A device used to send and receive radio waves. Any device that sends or receives wireless signals needs to have an antenna. Usually, they are internal and not visible. 

Bandwidth – A term to describe the amount of data transmitted over a connection. Typically, bandwidth is measured in bits per second or megabits per second.

Base Station – A radio receiver or transmitter that is the component of a wireless LAN that acts as the hub of a wireless network or serves as the bridge between the wired network and the wireless clients. 

Bridge – a device that connects two or more LANs or networks and allows them to share resources. For example, wired internet to wireless. 

Channel – A specific frequency range that a wifi network operates in. 

Client – Any device that uses wifi to connect to a network such as a smartphone, or laptop.

Coverage Area – the area in which a wifi signal can be received by devices.

DHCP – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol- is the protocol used by routers to assign IP addresses dynamically to devices on a network so they can communicate. 

DNS – Domain Name System- The decentralized system used to translate the English domain names we see in web browsers into numerical IP addresses

DSL – Digital Subscriber Lane – The connection runs over phone lines which can be used for both DSL and voice communication. It is available for both residential and commercial use.

Dwell Time – The length of time that a user or device is connected to WiFi 

Encryption – A process of transforming readable data into an unreadable format so only the sender and recipient can read it for data protection and security.

Ethernet – A popular type of computer networking technology that supports wired internet connections over distances up to 100 meters. Most commonly, ethernet connections utilize Cat5 or Cat6 cables. 

Firewall – A protective security device in the form of software or hardware that monitors traffic to and from your device. Firewalls can block or allow data based on set security parameters to stop hackers or viruses. 

Frequency Bands- WiFi frequency bands are frequency ranges within a spectrum that carry wifi. Frequency is the number of times a waveform repeats in one second (the higher the frequency, the faster data transmits). 

GHz – gigahertz- a unit of frequency equal to one billion hertz.

Hotspot – access points that allow you to connect to WiFi networks using devices while away from your home network. Some hotspots are publically accessible wifi networks. 

Intranet – a private restricted network that uses wifi to connect devices within an organization that users can share and store information within the private network. 

IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers- this is the professional organization responsible for developing WiFi standards.

Interference – Any type of energy that can affect the operation of a WiFi network, sources include wireless microwaves, baby monitors, and other neighboring networks. 

IoT – the Internet of Things, a network of physical devices that are connected to the internet

IP Address – Internet Protocol address- this is a unique identifier address assigned to every device connected to the internet. IP addresses consist of a series of numbers used to communicate over the internet. 

ISP – Internet Service Provider- a company that provides access to the internet.

Kbps – kilobits per second- a unit of data transfer rate equal to one thousand bits per second.

LAN – Local Area Network- A network of devices in one physical location or wifi network such as in an office or school.

Mbps – megabits per second – a unit of data transfer rate equal to one million bits per second.

MIMO – multiple-input, multiple-output – a wifi technology that uses multiple antennas to improve performance and transfer more data simultaneously. 

Mesh network – Multiple routers that work together to create a wifi network to provide better coverage in larger spaces like homes or offices. 

Net neutrality – the principle that all data on the internet should be treated equally, regardless of its source or destination. Meaning the internet service provider needs to give all content, and sites the same speed and conditions. 

Packet – A small unit of data that is sent over a network. Each package includes a source and destination plus the content.

Ping – Is a signal sent used to test the reachability of a host on an IP network. Commonly they are sent to measure response times or see if the host is available. 

PSK – Pre-Shared Key- a wifi security key that is shared between the user and the network. It consists of 8 to 63 characters. 

Repeater – A device that amplifies the signal of a wifi network and rebroadcasts it. 

Router – A device that allows your computer or other devices to connect to the internet. Routers connect your local home network to the internet then forwards data packets between devices.

SSID – Service Set Identifier- this is the name assigned to a wifi network. In simplest terms, a WiFi network name distinguishes it from other surrounding networks. 

Sticky Client – a wifi device that is configured to connect to a specific access point that no longer provides strong coverage when better access points are available.

TCP – Transmission Control Protocol- One of the main protocols used by the internet. TCP uses a suite of communication protocols to connect network devices. 

VoIP – Voice over IP- a technology that allows voice conversations to be transmitted over an IP network.

WAN – Wide Area Network-  Any WiFi network that covers a large geographic area, such as a city or region connecting other local area networks. 

WiFi – Wireless Fidelity- this is the common name for the 802.11 family of wifi standards.

WPA, WPA2, WEP – Wi-Fi Protected Access- A security standard used to protect devices with a WiFi connection using encryption and user authentication, created by the Wi-Fi Alliance. WPA2 is currently the standard.

WiFi Terms – It’s a Wrap! 

There you have it, the definitive list of WiFi terms! Bookmark this page and keep it handy. If you ever need to look one up, you’ll be glad you did. 

Did we miss a term you wanted to know? Comment and let us know. We’ll add it in future updates! 

Moving to Lancaster, CA? Everything You Need Is In This All-Inclusive Guide

Are you moving to Lancaster, CA? Then this blog is just what you need to make your move a success. Lancaster, CA is one of the best places to live in the US. It’s located just north of Los Angeles, nestled in the western Mojave desert’s Antelope Valley. 

Recently. The growing city recently claimed a spot on the Top 100 Places to Live. Livability awarded Lancaster a spot due to its thriving economy, a community rich in culture and diversity, and dedication to environmental protection. In addition, this growing city is one of the more affordable places the golden state offers, and the sun is always shining.

In case you haven’t heard, Race Communications is excited to bring our network and high-speed fiber internet to Lancaster in the fall of 2022. In celebration of this, we are bringing you a guide to moving to Lancaster. Here are some helpful tips and everything you need to know about moving to Lancaster. By the end of this blog, you’ll feel like a local! 

Moving to Lancaster, CA Poppy Field


Lancaster is currently home to a population of 160K residents (give or take). 


Lancaster is in the Mojave desert. The hot season ranging from June to September is hot and arid, with daily temps rising well into the 90s. Winter lasts from late November to March, with mild daytime temperature in the 60-70s, dropping at night into the 30s. 

Cost of Living 

Compared to most cities in California, Lancaster is a relatively affordable place to live but still only 73 miles outside of LA. The median household income is $55,237, and the median home price is $385,400. This price may seem high to some moving from other areas but keep in mind that California has a median home price of $834,000, so it’s much lower than the state average!

Moving to Lancaster, CA Sustainability

Sustainability Practices

The city has been working towards a more sustainable future since 1994 when the City Council adopted the Blue Skies Program and a resolution to use alternative fuels whenever possible. Ever since these programs came into place, the city has continued to develop environmentally friendly practices. 

To date, 22% of the city’s fleet of cars and pickups run on alternative fuel. Lancaster also practices water conservation by implementing xeriscaping and other ordinances to combat water wasting and encourage minimum water use. The city has won many awards for its efforts, including the prestigious World Energy Global Award.

moving to Lancaster, CA school districts

Lancaster, CA School Districts 

There are three major school districts in the city: the Lancaster School District, Eastside Union School District, and Antelope Valley High School District. Each district provides outstanding educational opportunities. 

The Lancaster School District spans 82.5 square miles, most of which lies within the city of Lancaster. The district is home to more than 15,000 students from preschool to 12th grade. Their mission is to provide a relevant, high-quality education within an inclusive and culturally respectful environment that prepares all students for personal and professional success. 

Eastside Union School District is Antelope Valley’s older school district. The district goes by the vision “Everyone contributes, every student achieves.” This school district is much smaller than other districts consisting of four elementary schools, one middle school, and one transitional learning center. However, the district is growing and excited about its future. 

Antelope Valley High School District is unique because it only consists of high schools. The district is made of eight traditional and three alternative high schools, plus SOAR, the early college high school on the Antelope Valley College Campus. The district also has online learning programs. There are 23,000 students in this district from Palmdale and Lancaster. Antelope Valley’s vision is to make sure every student who graduates will be prepared to pursue college and any career they aspire to. 

Moving to Lancaster, CA The BLVD

Things to Do 

There are many activities and places to see right in Lancaster. Let’s explore a few of our favorites below. 

The Famous California Poppy Festival

Lancaster is well known for the California Poppy Festival, which is set to return after two years with an even bigger event lasting three days to celebrate the vibrant state flower. The festival will boast live entertainment, amusement park rides, and activities for the whole family. 

Saddleback Butte State Park

If you’re a nature enthusiast, this next destination is for you. Saddleback Butte State Park is located in the high-desert just fifteen miles east of Lancaster.. In the state park, you’ll find Joshua Trees, desert plants, and animals surrounding the Saddleback Butte. In addition, the state part provides areas for hiking, camping, and 360-degree views of Antelope Valley and the Mojave Desert. 

The Lancaster Museum of Art and History 

Head to the Lancaster Museum of Art and History if you appreciate art. The museum holds a collection of over 10,000 artworks and artifacts, many of which celebrate the history of Southern California. MOAH also produces community-oriented programming that engages diverse audiences. Additionally, check out the Lancaster Performing Arts Center provides world-class entertainment to the city’s residents and is the largest performing arts center in Antelope Valley.

Hit the BLVD

The BLVD Cultural District has been the heart of culture in Antelope Valley since the 1800s. Packed with colorful murals and rich history, the district is home to innovative green initiatives, including electric vehicle charging stations and solar waste compactors. This bustling district is also home to a growing number of events, including weekly farmers’ markets and concerts. In addition, there are many locally-owned businesses and exciting restaurants to experience on the BLVD! 

Close Proximity to Major SoCal Cities

While Lancaster has a lot to keep you entertained, the city is also close in proximity to many other urban hubs. For example, Los Angeles is only 2 hours away, and San Diego is about 3 hours away. If you want to head to the ocean, Santa Monica Beach is the closest. Need a family getaway? Disneyland is just 2.5 hours away! 

Final Thoughts

Lancaster is a great place to live. It’s a thriving city full of things to do, great local culture, and is close to other major destinations in California!

If you are moving to the city and in need of reliable and fast internet, inquire now to join our waitlist! We’d love to help take your internet services to the next level. Contact our specialists at 877-722-3833 or send us an inquiry to be the first to know when Race is available in your part of town!

Why You Need to Protect Personal Information Online, Plus 6 Ways To Start

As the number of data breaches and cyber attacks grows exponentially every year, learning how to protect personal information online has become crucial to all of us. Unfortunately, it’s not as straightforward as it may seem: hackers keep getting smarter and their tactics more polished. It takes an educated eye to spot a scam!

As common as cyber attacks may be, we are not entirely helpless against them. In this post, we’ll explore why and how you need to protect your data online, the most common types of cyber attacks, and the steps you can take to protect yourself from harm. Let’s get learning!

protect personal information online

Why You Need to Protect Personal Information Online 

Everybody should take some steps to protect personal information online. Cybersecurity statistics show that a new cyber attack occurs every 39 seconds. The consequences can be harrowing: identity theft, extortion, public humiliation, and the sale of your personal data on the “dark web”. You can check if you’ve been hacked or if your passwords have been leaked on Have I Been Pwned.

Hackers can also access automated smart home devices through smartphones and computers. That means they get access to your personal security cameras, locks, and appliances. The amount of power hackers have over their victims is daunting, so it’s crucial we learn how to recognize a cyber attack and react accordingly to it.

protect personal information online from hackers

What are Common Cyber Security Concerns

Cyber attacks don’t just happen on their own. In fact, 98% of cyber attacks rely on social engineering – psychological manipulation of users to get them to perform a specific task. For example, security hackers trick users into accidentally giving away personal information online, such as passwords and credit card information. 

These are the most common social engineering tricks:

  • 80% of all social engineering attacks consist of phishing. Phishing emails or texts typically create a sense of urgency, such as saying that the user’s safety has been compromised and that they need to protect their personal information online by resetting their password or clicking on a link in the email.
  • Similarly, pretexting relies on impersonating people or authority figures that the user knows or trusts, such as friends, co-workers, or the government. Again, victims are far more likely to react to these types of attacks as they assume that the email came from a trusted source. 
  • Scareware also relies on the user’s panicked reaction to a message, in this case in the form of an alarming pop-up. For example, the message may inform users that their computer is infected by malware and prompts them to download a rogue antivirus program. However, the program is, in fact, scareware, not antivirus software. 

How You Can Protect Personal Information Online

Luckily, there are many steps users can take to protect their personal information online. Here are five actionable steps that should protect you from cyber-attacks.

1. Create Strong Passwords 

Creating a strong password is the first actionable step you can take to protect your data online. Do not use personal information, such as names and birthdays, or predictable sequences like ‘123’. Instead, be as random as possible and use a mix of letters, numbers, uppercase letters, and symbols. And remember – no matter how convenient it is, you should steer clear of using the same password on various websites and services. 

Use a password manager to keep track of your strong passwords and ensure they stay safe. LastPass can help you create stronger passwords and alerts you if your personal information is compromised. 

2. Use 2-Factor Authentication When Possible

Multi-factor identification is one of the best ways to protect your privacy online. The most common type is 2-factor authentication (2FA). Aside from your password, you need to confirm your identity with another step, such as codes and fingerprints. Codes are provided through text-based services or apps, such as Google Authenticator. 

2FA is easy to set up, and it goes a long way in protecting personal information online. You can add this step to social media profiles, productivity apps, online banks, emails, and password managers.

3. Be Mindful of What You Share on Social Media

As much as we like to share snippets of our private lives with our friends on social media, it’s important to remember that your posts and photos might not stay private once they’re published. Instagram and Snapchat are the most likely to get hacked, so be prudent about your social media activity. Keep your profiles private, and do not share any photos that identify your address or other important personal information.

Many mobile apps ask users for various permissions, including location and access to contacts and photos. Disable as many permissions as possible. That way, if your profile gets hacked, hackers cannot access your gallery and location history.

4. Avoid Using Free Public Wi-Fi & Hotspots

Think twice before using free public Wi-Fi. There’s no way of knowing whether the network uses encryption or not. Networks that are not secured are far more likely to get hacked, giving hackers access to the devices connected to the network. At the very least, you should avoid using public Wi-Fi for online shopping or when sharing private information.

Do not connect to a network you don’t know, either. If you intend to use public Wi-Fi in a coffee shop, for example, have the staff confirm that this truly is their network. Hackers can use these hotspots to pose as free Wi-Fi networks, also known as honeypots. Once you log on, hackers will get access to all your files on the computer and browsing history and passwords. 

5. Think Before You React

Since most social engineering attacks rely on people’s panicked reactions, it’s important to remember to stay calm in case you receive an alarming message. Think before you act. If you receive an alarming message, make sure to check the sender before you click on any links or share any personal information.

Be suspicious of unsolicited emails that give off a sense of urgency. If you cannot tell whether the email from a specific company or person is real or fake, call them directly to confirm. When you identify a phishing email, report it, and delete it immediately.

protect personal information online cyber security

Conclusion with Key Takeaways 

Considering how common cyber-attacks are, you must take extra steps to protect your data online. Most attacks rely on social engineering tactics, such as phishing, pretexting, and scareware. 

Protect personal information online by following these five rules:

  • Create a strong password and use a password manager,
  • Use 2-factor identification for your apps and services,
  • Be mindful of what you post on social media,
  • Avoid using public Wi-Fi and unknown hotspots,
  • Think before you react when you receive emails that give off a sense of urgency.

Which cyber security steps have you taken to ensure your safety online? Comment below and share!

What Goes Into Construction Of A Fiber Network? The Basics, Phases, and Beyond!

There is so much that goes into the construction of fiber networks. It’s a complex process that requires work long before that first shovel hits the ground. We touched on the process briefly when we explained the entire process of getting fiber internet to your city. But today, we’re diving deep into fiber construction and how a network is built. We’ll cover the basics, what needs to happen before, and exactly how it connects to your house below. If you’ve ever wondered how your high-speed fiber internet gets to your home, this is the blog for you! 

construction of fiber internet - man on computer

Construction Of A Fiber Network: The Basics

Before we get into the nitty-gritty of what it takes to construct a fiber network, let’s look at the two ways we can install a fiber network when coming to a city. 

Underground Installation 

This is when fiber cables are installed underground. Underground installation is the preferred way to install fiber networks as the cables are more protected from elements. Additionally, residents like it better because you won’t be able to see your newly installed lines.

Aerial Installation 

There are times when it’s simply not possible or cost-effective to install fiber cables underground. In this case, we go above and use aerial installations. The aerial method uses polls to install lines in the air. 

Construction Of A Fiber Network Design Phase

Construction Of A Fiber Network: Research 

Build the Roadmap 

Now that you have the basics let’s talk about research. Before starting fiber construction, we need to develop a building roadmap. Our team of engineers researches the area in depth to determine the best path forward and uncover potential challenges. On average, this process takes two to three months. The first step in the process is to look at the existing telecommunications infrastructure. Depending on how the infrastructure is laid out, it can help or hinder the construction process. For example, an internet service provider can sometimes run cables through existing telecom ducts. This makes installation easier but often more expensive if competitors own the ducts. Typically, they’ll charge expensive fees to access them.

Examine the Landscape 

Additionally, engineers need to study the terrain. Landscapes with soils that are hard to dig like clay make for a more expensive and time-intensive project to make a deep enough trench. It could be determined it makes more sense to go above ground and install an aerial line in an area like this. 

Construction Of A Fiber Network - creating a roadmap

Construction Of A Fiber Network: Design

Once the initial research phase is complete, it’s time to design the infrastructure. Internet service providers take the research learnings and map out the fiber network at this stage. Creating the infrastructure typically takes three months. 

Map out the Network

The network will consist of routing thousands of miles of cable, and all those miles need to avoid existing electrical, sewer, and water pipelines. Plus, if there are railroads in the area, the fiber construction will need to be planned around it. Additionally, natural elements like tree roots need to be avoided. 


After making the initial map for fiber construction, providers must go through permitting and approvals with the state and local government. These approvals allow providers access to utility easements within the area of construction. However, they don’t allow access to everything- if fiber construction needs to happen on private property such as an apartment community, we’ll need to gain those rights too. It’s important to note that permitting times vary greatly depending on who processes the permits. Some permits take six weeks, while others take up to six months. 

Construction Of A Fiber Network: Construction

After the design phase is complete and approvals have taken place, the construction begins! Despite previously laying out the roadmap, this is often the part of the process we see the most delays. 

Bad Weather

Weather is the biggest threat to delays in fiber construction. You can’t expose fiber lines to certain elements such as rain or snow. It could cause harm to the network before it is even fully deployed. Additionally, we can’t send our team out in unsafe conditions, so there will be delays like most construction projects if the weather doesn’t cooperate. 

Limited Resources

Resources can also cause delays. Like many other industries, fiber construction is impacted by labor shortages and the supply chain. While this is not a consistent problem, it can occur. Time constraints are another limitation. Cities don’t want construction running 24/7 and disrupting their citizens, so often permits have specific times and days that we can work. 

Unforeseen Circumstances

Lastly, though we do everything in our power to plan and predict roadblocks, once we start the process, there can be unforeseen circumstances that cause delays. For example, 

Testing the Network

Now that construction is wrapping up, it’s time to test the network. To ensure everything is in working order, we’ll test light levels from the optic network terminals and ensure all equipment is operating at our standards. Once we put the network through several tests and checks, we can mark construction as complete. 

Construction Of A Fiber Network connecting internet to homes

Finally, connect it to you! 

The final step is connecting it to all the households! Sometimes you may notice your neighbors get installed ahead of you. This can happen for several reasons. For example, if your neighbor has an aerial connection, but you have an underground connection, it might take a little longer. Additionally, you may experience delays in service if you are a renter and need to provide written authorization from your landlord to get service. 

Key Takeaways: Construction of Fiber Networks

As you can see, there are many steps to creating a fiber network and bringing our high-speed internet into communities. It’s an involved process that takes research and discovery to ensure everything is done safely and efficiently. Below are some key takeaways from how we construct fiber networks. 

  • There are two types of installation: aerial above ground and underground installation. 
  • Before any digging can start, there is a design and research phase. These phases combined take anywhere from 4-6 months to complete. Race ensures the fiber network has a clear road map to make construction a smooth process in this phase. 
  • Construction can experience delays such as inclement weather, permitting, and more. Be patient. We promise you’ll love the end product! 

Ready to get gigified? Learn more and check out our services or contact our specialists at 877-722-3833 to see what we offer in your area!